As the UNESCO comments:
Founded in the 5th century and spread over 118 small islands, Venice became a major maritime power in the 10th century. The whole city is an extraordinary architectural masterpiece in which even the smallest building contains works by some of the world’s greatest artists such as Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese and others.
1. Venice and its outstanding universal value
When’s the first time you heard about Venice and how? Well, I guess the first time I heard about Venice was in my English literature class when I was introduced to William Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice“. Or maybe it was in my history class when I learnt that Marco Polo departed from here in search of China, Annam (nowadays Vietnam), Tonkin, Sumatra (an island in Indonesia), India and Persia. His voyage reminds us of the role that the Venetian merchants played in the discovery of the world, though after the Arabs, around 200 years before the Portuguese. In fact, it’s also possible that I heard about Venice even earlier, in my Chinese literature class when I was appreciating the essay “Venice” written by Zhu Ziqing, a renowned Chinese poet and essayist.
Zhu studied at Peking University (always one of the 2 top universities in China), and during the May Fourth Movement became one of several pioneers of modernism in China during the 1920s. Zhu was a prolific writer of both prose and poetry, but is best known for essays like “Retreating Figure” (背影), “You. Me.” (你我) and the long poem “Destruction” (毁灭). This time, before leaving for Venice, I told my parents that I was going there and my dad said, “Oh, Venice, the city that Zhu Ziqing visited and wrote about. Don’t forget to take the gondola and check whether they are the same as he described or not. Maybe they have changed now?” The text above is part of what Zhu wrote and I’ll try to translate it by myself here. I hope and will try my best to keep the “original taste” of it.
Venice is a unique place. Once leaving the train station, you will immediately realize that there are no cars here. Wherever you wanna go, you can to take either a steam ship or a gondola. The Grand Canal goes through Venice like the letter “S” and it is the “main street” of the city. What’s more, there are 480 small canals and rios and they play the same role as the small alleys (hutong) in Beijing. The steam ships are like buses in other cities, “driving” passengers hither and thither. Gondola is similar to a rowed boat and it’s unique here in Venice. Wherever you wanna go, it can take you there. There are no bridges? Of course there are and there are 378! That’s a lot and enough because after turning around and around, you can basically reach everywhere without touching the sea water. Nevertheless, still quite a lot of people choose to take ships and it seems that gondola is also a rather popular option among them. Composed of many small islands and located at the northeast corner of the Italian peninsula, Venice is called the “city in the sea”. Seen from the top of San Marco Campanile, the islands are like floral clusters floating on the Adriatic sea. In warm sunlight and with almost no smoke, my sight goes through the seemingly transparent whole until it reaches the horizon where the sea meet the sky. As a Chinese, Venice reminds me of the water towns in southern China. After my trip to northern Europe in early summer, I can still find spring here, retreating yet clear. The water, so green and so “strong”, flows into your dreams.
The essay is much longer and I hope you can grasp a general idea or feeling of it from my translation. I’m happy that writing about Venice gives me the opportunity to read Zhu’s work again. I think the last time I read the “Venice” by him was somewhat more than 10 years ago and I have forgotten almost all of it except the “gondola”. A city floating on the sea? Doesn’t it only exist in fairytales or the magical world? As Zhu mentioned in his essay, I was born and grew up in southern China and I know Suzhou (Soochow) is called the “Oriental Venice” because of its rivers and bridges. I lived in this city for four years and I’ve always dreamt of seeing the real Venice. Eventually, the opportunity has come.
In this lagoon covering 50,000 square kilometers, nature and history have been closely connected since the 5th century when the Venetian ancestors came to the sandy islands of Torcello, Jesolo and Malamocco. As time went by, temporary settlements turned to be permanent and the fisherman and peasants became a maritime power. With its expansion over the centuries, Venice never ceased to consolidate its position in the lagoon. What is it that made the UNESCO decide to protect the whole city and its lagoon? What kind of historical, cultural and educational values does Venice possess? Based on what I read from the UNESCO World Heritage website, I’ll try to answer these question from three main aspects, that is to say, the city planning (protection), the monuments (architecture) and the art (painters and paintings).
1.1 Urban setting
Before seeing it, it’s rather difficult to imagine a city built on the sea. We sometimes say though a sparrow is small, it has all the organs that it needs. From Torcello to the north to Chioggia to the south, the islands here in this lagoon are similar to the sparrows, small yet highly functional. Made up of these islands and located at the heart of Veneto, Venice “stood as one of the greatest capitals” in the Middle Ages. In this distinctive city, street means canal, alley means rio, bus means ship and pedestrian crossing means bridge. This unique landscape resulted from a long and sophisticated process which reflects the interaction between people and the natural environment and it is this interaction that demonstrates people’s high technical and creative skills in the “realization of the hydraulic and architectural works” in this area. Although Venice presents a complete typology of medieval architecture, what makes it more special and valuable is that these buildings were constructed according to certain urban setting which had to adapt to the special conditions of the site.
Was it an easy task to organize the islands in such an urban system? It was not and it is not an easy task to keep the system or to update it nowadays either. Venice was and still is vulnerable due to various reasons. One of them is the irreversible natural and climate changes. We human beings can change a lot of things but one of the few things that we can never take control of is nature. Though very difficult, negotiating with nature and protecting their home is a task that the Venetians never forget or give up. When you are in the city, you will see ingenious devices and designs that have been applied to the streets and buildings (palazzos, churches and so on) for this specific purpose. As part of the coherent ecosystem, the muddy shelves, the small islands, the pile dwellings, the fishing villages, the rice fields and so on (which can be easily neglected) all need the same level of attention and protection. Shouldn’t we remember the crystallization of wisdom of these people who were, are and will be coping with nature to preserve this glorious gem of the sea?
1.2 Architecture and monumental arts
The second aspect showing Venice’s outstanding universal value is its influence on the development of monumental arts. I was writing about Palladio and his works in and around Vicenza some time ago and I mentioned some of his original designs in Venice. Honestly, for me, visiting Venice is like visiting the historic centers of Rome and Paris in the aspect that almost every building has its own history and is worth knowing about. This is the reason why the UNESCO emphasizes that “the lagoon of Venice has one of the highest concentrations of masterpieces in the world”. From the palazzos to the squares (piazza and campi), from the bridges to the streets (calli), from the churches to the Scuole hospitals and chartable and cooperative institutions, one who sees Venice sees the complete catalogue of medieval architecture and even more.
While we are talking about the city’s history and buildings, how can we miss its significant role as the capital (810–1797) of the Republic of Venice? For almost a millennium, Venice was the major witness to the ups and downs of this powerful sovereign state and nowadays, its architectural ensembles make it possible for us to see the magnificence of the Republic’s Golden Age. What’s more, internationally, the monuments built based on the Venetian models “first through the Serenissima’s fondachi or trading stations, along the Dalmatian coast, in Asia Minor and in Egypt, in the islands of the Ionian Sea, the Peloponnesus, Crete, and Cyprus” are strong evidence of the width and strength of this Republic’s influence on architecture.
1.3 Paintings and decorative arts
When the Republic of Venice started to lose its power over the sea, it exerted its influence in a rather different manner. I personally am a great fan of Italian paintings and besides the Manneristic Renaissance painters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, the ones belonging to the Venetian school are always among my favorites. From the later part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, flourishing and influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione and the workshop of Giovanni Bellini, major artists of the Venetian school included Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Tintoretto (also known as Jacopo Robusti in his youth), Paolo Veronese (also known as Paolo Caliari) and Jacopo Bassano (also known as Jacopo dal Ponte). Together with Giambattista and Giandomenico Tiepolo, their revolutionary and ingenious masterpieces illustrating a brand-new perception of space, light and color left a decisive mark on the development of painting and decorative arts in the whole of Europe.
I remember that in the museums in other cities, once I saw paintings of these masters that I mentioned above, I would definitely take a close look at them. Nevertheless, in Venice, I only chose to take a look at the most famous ones or the ones that I like the most. Why? Because there are so many! I assure you that in no other city of the world can you see such a complete collection of works created by these great painters. These marvelous masterpieces are scatted all over Venice in the churches, houses, palazzos and of course in the museums and art galleries. For example, in the Church of San Zaccaria, you can see Giovanni Bellini’s “San Zaccaria Altarpiece”; in the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, you can see Titian’s “The Assumption of the Virgin”; in the Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore, you can see Tintoretto’s “Last Supper”; in the Gallerie dell’Accademia, you can see Paolo Veronese’s “The Feast in the House of Levi” and “Mystical Marriage of St Catherine”, Titian’s “Presentation of the Virgin” and many more. Trust me, if you are a fan of any of those masters in the Venetian school, you will certainly feel Venice is the paradise of art. Just a reminder, as a city built on 118 small islands floating on the Adriatic Sea, the beauty of Venice also inspired numerous landscape painters such as Canaletto, Guardi, Turner and so on.
2. General tips for visiting Venice
Having elaborated on the outstanding universal value of Venice, now, by answering four questions, I’d like to give you a general introduction to the city accompanied by some suggestions or tips based on my own experiences. The first question that I guess many people, who have never been to Venice, have in their mind is: “What are the must-visit attractions in this wonderful city?” Well, I guess anyone who knows Italy knows Venice and anyone who knows Venice knows St. Mark’s Square. It is the principal public square of Venice and is generally known just as la Piazza (“the Square”). Together with the Piazzetta (“little Square”), an extension of the Piazza towards the lagoon in its south east corner, it forms the social, religious and political centre of Venice. In fact, All the other urban spaces in the city (except the Piazzale Roma) are called campi (“fields”). Dominated by the Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark, Procuratie Nuove, Napoleonic Wing, Procuratie Vecchie, the Campanile of St Mark’s church, Biblioteca Marciana, and Doge’s Palace, these two spaces are worth the name “the drawing room of Europe” (a comment which is said to have been left by Napoleon).
Take your time but remember, don’t spend all your time here. Otherwise, you will miss a big part of Venice. I somehow feel that visiting Venice is like going through a general body examination. It’s of vital importance to check the heart (visit the St. Mark’s Square) but without checking other parts, this examination just doesn’t make much sense. All in all, I’d really like to remind you that Venice is much more than just St. Mark’s Square. Visiting the bridges (such as Ponte dell’Accademia and the Rialto Bridge), the churches (such as the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and the Basilica of Saint Mary of Health), the houses or palaces (such as Ca’ Rezzonico and Ca’ Pesaro), the islands (such as Murano and Burano), the museums (such as the Lace Musem and the Glass Museum), the Gallerie dell’Accademia, the Grand Canal and so on will help you gain a much more detailed and comprehensive understanding of Venice.
“How long should we stay in Venice?” Well, this is a very difficult question because depending on how much you wanna see and how much you wanna learn, the length could vary from three days to a month or even longer. If you wanna have a good understanding of the city, I would say you need to spend at least a week here. “What’s the best time to visit Venice?” I visited Venice in November and at the beginning I was a bit disappointed because my friends told me the weather in the summer is much better. Nevertheless, when they told me they waited for one, two or even more hours to enter the churches and museums, I was so glad and realized that I chose the right time. In totally, I visited 18 churches and 9 museums and I didn’t spend any time waiting for entering them. Though in the winter, almost all the museums close earlier than in the summer, I’m still happy that I can use the time standing in the lines to have a nice dinner and enjoy the view of Venice at night. Briefly, if possible, I still recommend you visiting Venice in the low season to avoid large crowds.
“Is it safe to travel in Venice?” According to my experience, I would say my own trip was rather smooth and successful. I wouldn’t say there’s anything life-threatening that you need to be reminded of. Nevertheless, do keep an eye on your personal belongings because similar to any other big or famous touristy cities, thieves are inevitable. What’s more, don’t fall for their tricks when someone offers you free stuff or asks you to sign something. Just remember that there is no such thing as a free lunch. Besides,there are two more things that I’d like to share with you concerning having lunch and dinner in the restaurants. Firstly, please note that cover fee and service fee are two different charges so when you go to a restaurant where they say they don’t charge compulsory service fee, don’t be surprised when the cover fee appears on your bill, and vice versa. Honestly, as for the cover fee, I think its reasonable to charge it and as long as they provide ok service, I prefer that the restaurants just charge the service fee directly so I don’t need to calculate and think about how much tip I should leave. The thing I hate the most is that sometimes they say one thing while doing another (For example, some guy standing in front of the restaurant inviting customers in said that the restaurant wouldn’t charge service fee or whatsoever. Nevertheless, by the end, both fees appeared on the bill and I saw some customers complaining to him and he seemed to suggest that he would talk with the manager and give their cover and service fees back. Of course 99% of the people would say “Ah, it’s just a few euros, never mind,” and that’s how he does his “business”.) I don’t mind paying a few more euros but if you lie to me, I won’t allow myself to be tricked like a fool and pretend nothing has happened. The second thing is that when you make your order, make sure you see your dish and the price on the menu. For example, in one restaurant, the waitress asked my friend and me, “do you want some garlic bread”? and I said “sure, why not.” but when I got the “garlic bread” they turned out to be tomato buchetta. I bet that if I questioned her she would say “oh, sorry I can’t speak English well or oh sorry, isn’t buchetta garlic bread?” What else could I say? Fortunately, nowadays on Google Map you can check reviews of the restaurants and I strongly recommend you doing so before entering them. How I regret I didn’t do it because later on I checked the reviews of that particular restaurant and there had been so many similar cases much worse then mine. Can you imagine how you would feel if you and your family enter a restaurant planning to have a simple dinner for around 60 euros and end up paying 200 instead? I sincerely hope that the local authorities could deal with these kinds of restaurants which are obviously trying to “rip tourists off”. We tourists need to respect Venice and on the other hand, Venice (relevant administrations) also needs to respect its visitors. Only in this way can we achieve a harmonious relationship between the city and the people.
3. Brief info about public transport and major attractions (that I visited)
As I mentioned above, during my this trip to Venice, I visited 16 churches belonging to the Chorus Association, a conservation organisation aiming at safeguarding, conserving and restoring the artistic, historical and cultural heritage contained within the 18 Venetian churches that presently constitute its membership (Church of Santa Maria del Giglio, Church of Santo Stefano, Church of Santa Maria Formosa, Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Church of San Giovanni Elemosinario, Church of San Polo, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Church of San Giacomo dall’Orio, Church of San Stae, Church of Sant’Alvise, Basilica of San Pietro di Castello, Church of the Santissimo Redentore, Church of Santa Maria del Rosario (Gesuati), Church of San Sebastiano, Church of San Giobbe, Church of San Giuseppe di Castello, Church of San Vidal and Church of San Giacomo di Rialto), 8 museums belonging to the Venice Civic Museum Foundation (Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia) (Doge’s Palace, Museo Correr, Ca’ Rezzonico, Ca’ Pesaro, Glass Museum in Murano, Natural History Museum, Mocenigo Palace, Fortuny Palace, Lace Museum in Burano, Carlo Goldoni’s house and Clock Tower (visits only upon prior booking)) as well as the Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark, the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore as well as the Gallerie dell’Accademia.
If you want to visit both the churches and the civic museums I recommend you buying the City Pass from VeneziaUnica which costs 29.9 euros for people from 6 to 29 years old (39.9 euros for people from 30+) and gives free admission to: Doge’s Palace and all 10 Civic Museums of Venice, 16 churches of the Chorus Circuit (another 2 are free), the Querini Stampalia Foundation and the Jewish Museum. Please click here to check more offers provided by VeneziaUnica such as St. Mark’s City Pass (free access to Doge’s Palace and the Corror museum on St. Mark’s square + 3 churches in the Chorus circuit of your choice), St. Mark’s City Pass + tour of the Teatro La Fenice with audioguide, City Pass + lagoon tour, City Pass + public transport and so on.
If you only wanna visit the churches of the Chorus Association, I suggest you buy the Chorus Pass which costs only 12 euros for an adult (please note that entrance to each church in this circuit costs 3 euros already). For more information about the reduced-price Pass, Family Pass, free tickets, opening hours of the churches and so on, please click here.
If you only wanna visit the civic museums, you can buy the “Museum Pass” which grants entrance to most of them except Palazzo Fortuny and the Clock Tower. The full price is 24 euros. Depending on which and how many museums in this foundation you want to visit, either buying the tickets separately or buying the “Museum Pass” can be cheaper. However, if you plan to visit more than four museums in this circle, it’s for sure a better deal to just buy the Pass. Please click here and then click the PDF file “Civic Museums of Venice – short version” to check both the full and reduced entrance prices for each of the museums and click here to know more about the different prices of the “Museum Pass” (such as family pass, child pass, senior pass etc).
As for public transport, water bus (ship) is the main means. According to my experience, it’s fun exploring the main island both on foot and by boat because the former means gives you the opportunity to be closer to the narrow streets and authentic residential blocks while the latter makes your journey much easier and more convenient because there are so many lines and stops. Nevertheless, if you want to visit the Church of the Santissimo Redentore, the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, the Lace Museum on Burano Island, the Glass Museum on Murano Island and so on and have a cruise on the magnificent Grand Canal, you have to take the water bus. Depending on how many days you will spend in Venice and where you want to go, you can buy one-way ticket (7.5 €), 1-day ticket (20 €), 2-day ticket (30 €), 3-day ticket (40 €), 7-day ticket (60€), water bus tickets with Marco Polo Airport transfer and so on. For more informations about group tickets and some special offers please click here and click “Public Transport”.
Having explained to you the outstanding universal value of Venice in terms of its history, city planning, architecture and art; provided you with some practical tips concerning the ideal length of your stay, the proper season of your visit and what you should note while eating in the restaurants; and introduced to you the public transport system as well as the entrance prices and opening hours of some of the major attractions such as the churches belonging to the Chorus Association and the museums of the MUVE, I think it’s time to embark on our journey. First, let’s visit the churches, witnesses of faith and art in Venice.
4. Churches of the Chorus Association
In total, I visited 16 out of the 18 churches belonging to the Chorus Association and again if you wanna visit more than four of them, I strongly recommend you buying the Chorus Pass because it’s a very good deal. What surprised me most was that these churches are not only religious places but also art galleries. In this and the following two posts, based on the information I learnt both from the info sheets on site and from the official website, I’ll introduce to you the 16 churches starting with their opening hours and focusing on their history, architectural features and the paintings within following the order shown on the Chorus website. As for the permission to take pictures, I asked the staff in one of the churches and he told me that it depends on the priest in charge of the church so in some churches you can take pictures while in others you can not. My suggestion is that in each church, while you are going through the ticket booth and getting your info sheet (available in various languages), just ask the staff whether you can take photos or not. Most of them are very friendly and helpful. Now, let’s start with the Church of Santa Maria del Giglio.
4.1 Church of Santa Maria del Giglio
Open from Monday to Saturday: 10:30 – 16:30 (last entrance at 16:20)
This ancient church was founded in the 9th century possibly with origins dating back to the 5th and 7th centuries. It was rebuilt in 1680 with the present hall, the flat ceiling, the shallow side chapels and the chancel. Before entering, I’m sure your attention will be attracted to the façade. It was commissioned by Antonio Barbaro as a funeral monument to show his glories and those of his family and is one of the most original and imaginative expressions of Baroque Venetian art. As shown in the first picture in this chapter, we can see a sculpted figure of him above his sarcophagus framed by a marble cloth and in the niches are statues of his brothers. The panels depicting battle scenes and the relief maps depicting cities indicate Antonio’s military triumphs as well as various places that he served the Venetian Republic. Once you are inside the church, make sure to see Peter Paul Rubens’ “Virgin Mary and Child with Little St. John”, the only painting of this Flemish artist to be preserved in Venice. What’s more, on two sides of the chancel, take a close look at Tintoretto’s “The Evangelists Mark and John (1552)” and “The Evangelists Luke and Matthew (1552)”. For more information about this church please click here.
4.2 Church of Santo Stefano
Open from Monday to Saturday: 10:30 – 16:30 (last entrance at 16:20). Please note that you can enter the church for free but if you wanna visit the sacristy where a lot of paintings by the great masters such as Tintoretto are stored, you need to pay an entrance fee. It is not allowed to take pictures in this church.
After the Frari and the Church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, this is the third largest monastery church in Venice. Built between the 13th and 14th centuries, it went through great modification in the 15th century. It was also during this modification that a unique solution was adopted. An extension was built over the Rio del Santissino behind the church to house the apses and was connected to the church by a bridge. I guess only in Venice can you see such a structure in church architecture. The church has three naves, no transepts, a deep presbytery and two apse chapels. Upon entering, I’m sure you will be amazed by its depth and colors. Giovanni Gabrieli’s tomb (an Italian composer and organist and one of the most influential musicians of his time) can be found in front of the first altar of the left nave. Though the frescoed walls, the ceiling, the wooden choir are all worth your attention, I loved the sacristy (a nice 15th century room)the most because of the paintings such as the “Last Supper” (1579-80), “The Resurrection” (1565 ca.), “Christ Washing the Apostles’ Feet” (1579-80) and “Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane” (1579-80) by Tintoretto. In addition, you can also see works by Bonifacio De ‘Pitati, Bartolomeo Vivarini, Gaspare Diziani and the beautiful sculpture “Stele Funeraria del Senatore Giovanni Falier” (1808)” by Antonio Canova. For more information about this church please click here.
4.3 Church of Santa Maria Formosa
Open from Monday to Saturday: 10:30 – 16:30 (last entrance at 16:20)
The original church, according to tradition, was one of the eight churches founded by San Magno, bishop of Oderzo in the 7th century. These eight churches were among the earliest ones in Venice. In fact, the story about the name of the church is rather interesting because the word “Formosa” means “beautiful” in Latin and this church got its name because it is said that Virgin Mary in the form of a beautiful matron appeared in San Magno’s dream and ordered him to erect a temple dedicated to her on the spot where he saw a white cloud take shape. The current church with the Latin cross layout was built in 1492 by Mauro Codussi, an architect from Bergamo who designed the interior according to calculated geometrical relations. It respects the foundations of the original 7th-century church and partially maintains the 9th-century Byzantine plan with a Greek cross. The external façades were built after Mauro Codussi’s death and the one facing the canal was built in Renaissance style in the 16th century while the other one facing the campo was built in Baroque style in the 17th century. Isn’t visiting this church a perfect opportunity to make a comparison between these two different art styles?
Inside the church you should not miss the “St. Barbara Polyptych” by Jacopo Palma il Vecchio (as shown in the first picture in this chapter) located in the chapel of the Scuola dei Bombardieri. It was this artwork that gave the painter the first recognition of his name in the city. The Conception Chapel houses a triptych of “Madonna of Mercy” by Bartolomeo Vivarini (as shown in the fifth picture in the gallery), which clearly shows the influence of Andrea Mantegna on this Murano artist. It is said that in the Oratory is the “Madonna with Child and St. Dominic” by Giambattista Tiepolo, but unfortunately I didn’t find it. Last but not least, the “Approval of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity” by Baldassare d’Anna and “The Last Supper” by Leandro Bassano are also worth noticing. If you wanna know more about this church please click here.
4.4 Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli
Open from Monday to Saturday: 10:30 – 16:30 (last entrance at 16:20)
This church is indeed a special one not only from a historical point of view but also from the artistic and architectural points of view. First of all, why is this church called Madonna of the Miracles (Miracoli)? In order to understand this name, we have to take a close look at the painting “Virgin with Child” located in the presbytery by Zanino di Pietro. In 1408, Francesco Amadi commissioned Zanino di Pietro to paint a “Virgin with Child” which was later placed by Angelo Amadi in front of his house. After Pope Sixtus IV’s declaration of the Immaculate Conception Cult, this painting was declared miraculous. Later on, the Senate of the Most Serene Republic of Venice obliged the Amadis to build a chapel for this small but miraculous altarpiece. The task was commissioned to Pietro Lombardo, who together with his workshop designed a church and a convent (formerly connected with the church through an over-head gallery) for the Franciscan nuns. The construction started in 1480 and on the night of the 31st December 1489, after the completion of this church, the image was brought into it and the services began.
The outstanding value of this church is demonstrated in two aspects. First of all, even when the Gothic tradition was still very apleuch alive in the city, it is one of the first and most accomplished examples of Venetian Renaissance art. Secondly, different form many other churches which have been overlapped by different styles, this church is basically untouched, which means that though it was founded later than the others, it was designed, built and decorated by only one artist and his workshop. My attention was immediately attracted to it even when I was crossing the bridge (as you can see from the first picture in this chapter). A church made of sculpted marble, isn’t that interesting. The façade is composed of two orders of arcades made of carved marble and is topped by a semi-oval front adorned with rose windows. The church itself is enclosed by a cylindrical roof and once you are inside you will see the amazing barrel vault decorated with wooden coffer and fifty panels depicting “prophets and patriarchs” painted by Pier Maria Pennachi. Since we are already inside, I believe it won’t be difficult to notice that the interior and the exterior are united concerning the patterns and building material. This church is composed of a single nave and a raised presbytery, which is even more decorated than the other parts. On the altar stands Zanino di Pietro’s “miraculous” “Virgin and Child” which we talked about before. Don’t worry you can climb up the stairs to take a close look at the pinging but don’t cross the red rope. On the pendentives of the cupola, you can see statues of the four evangelists, which are, together with the transenne, probably the works of Pietro Lombardo himself, the designer of this church. By the way, if you turn around while you are standing in the presbytery, you will have a good view of the wooden hanging chancel above the entrance. It was used by the Franciscan nuns from the nearby convent who gained access to the church by means of a raised passageway which has been demolished.
All in all, this is in my opinion one of the most special churches in Venice in terms of architectural features. If you wanna know more about it please click here.
4.5 Church of San Giovanni Elemosinario
Open from Monday to Saturday: 10:30 – 16:30 (last entrance at 16:20)
The original church was very ancient and is said to have been built before 1071. Nevertheless, after a big fire in the Rialto area in 1514, nothing remains of the original building. The church we see nowadays is a reconstruction commissioned to Antonio Abbondi (also known as Scarpagnino) and was completed before 1531. I don’t know whether it will be the same case for you or not, but for me, I did spend some time finding it. Why was this church built hidden in the market? In order to answer this question, we have to understand its indissoluble link with the world of merchants. I read later from the info sheet on site that this church was designed in such a particular way that it could be fully and harmoniously integrated into the urban setting, an area of commerce. What’s more, the clergy even rented the spaces in front of it to merchants to use as shops so that they could obtain their sustenance.
In fact, the link can be noted both outside and inside the church. Though inconspicuous, this church, built in the form of a Greek cross, is richly decorated and stores some masterpieces by two of the greatest artists of the 16th century. That is to say, the altarpiece with “St. John the Almsgiver” by Titian and the altarpiece on the right chapel, with ” Saints Catherine, Sebastian and Roch” by Pordenone. I guess not much needs to be said about Titian but as for Pordenone, I find him a rather curious figure. As I read from Wikipedia,
His life was as energetic and restless as his art; he married three times, and was accused in court of hiring criminals to kill his brother to avoid sharing their inheritance. He perhaps had some influence on later works by Titian and more clearly on Tintoretto, who to some extent took over his position as the leading painter of large mural commissions in Venice.
Rumor has it that the two paintings in this church were the result of an ability test between Titian and Pordenone. I read it from the Chorus website that after Titian finished the altarpiece with “St. John the Almsgiver”, the patron saint of this church, he left for a trip to Bologna. During his absence, various Venetian noblemen commissioned Pordenone to decorate another chapel with ” Saints Catherine, Sebastian and Roch”, intending to publicly challenge the abilities of these two artists. Upon Titian’s return, he was very annoyed seeing Pordenone’s work in competition with his own. Nevertheless, stylistic analysis indicates that Pordenone’s painting was very likely made between 1530 and 1530 while Titian’s was made between 1545 and 1550. In this case, the whole story doesn’t make any sense anymore and I guess a rumor is after all a rumor. However, the rivalry between the two artists did seem to exist in Pordenone’s last decade.
Inside the church, I’d also like to draw your attention to three paintings as shown in the third picture in this chapter. That is to say “The Parish Priest Gianmaria Carnonali Blesses Doge Leonardo Dona” in the center, “St. Mark” on the left and “St. John the Almsgiver” on the right. They are the works by Marco Vecellio, Titian’s nephew. What’s more, the fresco on the cupola depicting “God the Father in Glory” is the work by Pordenone. For more information about this church such as paintings by Leonardo Corona or Domenico Tintoretto, please click here.
Having introduced to you the first five churches which are members of the Chorus Association, I’m gonna talk about the Church of San Polo, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Church of San Giacomo dall’Orio, Church of San Stae and the Church of Sant’Alvise in my next post. If you only have time to visit one church in Venice. I personally would recommend the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, where Titian’s “Assumption of the Virgin” or “Frari Assumption” remains in the position it was designed for.